Thursday, February 5, 2009

Praxis: Plan of Instruction, Part Two

Basic Training Guide:

“Basic Training” for _____________ members will consist of formal training at monthly sessions at various locations throughout the state. To participate in any training event, each interested person must, at a minimum, complete a basic skill, gear & equipment certification*. After completing requirements for membership is authorized to wear the ___________ patch and is considered a rifleman candidate.

Each new rifleman candidate will have 120 days to complete the minimum skill based performance requirements. Each county leader within the group will serve as a guide to new members and help them negotiate the requirements. The Rifleman Candidate should spend more than the formal training time learning, practicing, and perfecting those skills required. Successful completion of Basic not only earns the new candidate respect among his peers, but allows him or her to have “voting rights” in _____________ decisions put to the general membership by the Leader’s Council (comprised of the command function and all county leaders in the ________________).

Basic Skill, Gear & Equipment Certification: To be certified, the following weapons, equipment and basic abilities must be possessed and knowledge of their use must be demonstrated.

 Rifle – Military caliber capable; bolt or semi-automatic capable of engaging targets at a minimum of 250 meters.

 Ammunition – 100 rounds minimum and associated magazines, en bloc or stripper clips with appropriate bandoliers (as applicable) for carrying.

 Cleaning Kit – Appropriate to the rifle carried.

 LBE (Load Bearing Equipment) – Can be comprised of a harness (“Y” or “H”) or a combat vest, web belt, and associated pouches for carrying required accouterments.

 Canteen or Hydration Bladder – Can be any 1 quart container (minimum); Camelbak type highly recommended; military type canteens will suffice as well.

 BDU Uniform – The ______ dresses in BDU type uniforms. The pattern of camouflage on the uniform is left to the individual, however, for our AO, the Woodland pattern has become ubiquitous. Marpat and Multicam patterns are also acceptable. ACU pattern fatigues do not blend very well at all except in urban environments during limited visibility and are discouraged from use as are yellow desert colored boots (the idea behind camouflage is to make it difficult for an enemy to see you, not the opposite).

 Combat, Hunting, or Hiking Boots – They must be field capable, i.e., able to take a lot of abuse, provide ankle support, and basic comfort over long walks. Do not skimp on your boots! Many brands are available; just remember you get what you pay for. Don’t become a liability to your group because you bought cheaply made boots!

 Individual 1st Aid Kit – Must contain: 1 battle dressing (compression type); 1 triangular bandage; 1 tube of Triple Anti-Biotic (such as Neosporin Plus) with or without pain reliever; 1 small roll of gauze; 1 4”X4” gauze pad; 5 band-aids (minimum); 1 pr latex gloves; either or – 1 additional battle dressing or 1 4X4 gauze pad. The kit can be held in a small plastic bag or in a USGI issue 1st aid kit. It must be on your person or LBE.

 Copy of the US Constitution and Declaration of Independence – This can be had in a publication called, “The Citizen’s Rule Book” and is small enough to carry in your shirt pocket. Get one. It should be on your person at all times when in the field, as the Constitution is the “supreme law of the land”.

 Complete a 2 Mile Hike in 40 Minutes or Less* – You must carry your rifle, LBE, ammunition, 1st Aid Kit while wearing your uniform and boots. You must complete your walk prior to performing your marksmanship demonstration. (*You will be required to do this in 31 minutes to complete your “basic training”—this is just to make sure you’re fit enough to begin your training!)

 Marksmanship Demonstration – You must shoot 10 rounds at a 6 inch tall AQT target at a distance of 100 yards. You must have 8 out of 10 within the border of the target to complete this demonstration. You will only have 3 attempts available. If, after 3 attempts, you cannot hit 8 out of 10, you must come back another time and again perform this demonstration.

 Weapon Field Stripping Demonstration – You must field strip your rifle into its major groups for cleaning, e. g., the barrel group and receiver group at a minimum. You must also put the rifle together and function check to ensure it works.

Prior to beginning basic training, in addition to all equipment listed in the Basic Skill, Gear, and Equipment Certification, each Rifleman Candidate must have and be able to demonstrate:

 Poncho w/liner – It may be military or civilian, but must be colored so that it reasonably blends in if used as a shelter.

 Lensatic Compass – USGI highly recommended.

 Camouflage face paint – Enough for several applications

 Combat Knife or Bayonet – Fixed blade between 6 and 10 inches (blade length). If a bayonet is chosen, it must be mountable on the rifle carried.\

 Personal flashlight with blue (or traffic light green*) or red lens cover (colored cellophane can be used to rig a lens cover). *Traffic light green is the least harmful color for night vision.

 100 Feet of 550 (parachute) cord – Minimum--200 feet is better.

 State Road Map – Can be obtained free at the State’s Department of Transportation web site.

 FRS (or FRS/GMRS) radio – Must have for communications. 20 plus mile range highly recommended; 10 mile range minimum acceptable.

 Properly Bandage an Extremity – To a simulated one sided wound to either an arm or leg. Demonstrate escalation of treatment from pressure to bandaging and then treat for shock.

 Camouflage self & equipment – You will have 30 minutes to paint self & use field expedient materials to camouflage your equipment.

 Construct a Poncho “Hootch” or Lean-To – Demonstrate the proper method for constructing an emergency shelter and be willing to spend the night in it.

 Complete a 3 mile walk with all listed equipment within 1 hour

Once these minimum equipment and skill requirements are demonstrated, the person wishing to join the _________ is now a “Rifleman Candidate” and must complete “Basic Training” within 120 days of the day he starts the training. The evaluation may be conducted by the individual’s county leader, the Training & Operations officer, or any NCO within the _____________ or a combination thereof. Evaluations may be done on days separate from group training, but must be witnessed/evaluated by at least two of the above named men.

Rifleman Candidate: The following is what the RC must accomplish no later than 120 days after becoming a member. A general task listing is provided in addition to explanations that follow the task listing.

Skill or Task: Marksmanship
Performance: Complete AQT Qualification IAW Course of Fire
Standard: Score 120 pts or higher
Time Requirement: Within 120 Days

Skill or Task: Equipment Check
Performance: Demonstrate Required Gear/Equipment Possession
Standard: IAW Equip Checklist
Time Requirement: Within 60 Days

Skill or Task: Personal Camouflage
Performance: Camouflage self & gear & not be discernable at 10 Meters
Standard: IAW MW LP
Time Requirement: Within 60 Days

Skill or Task: Physical Fitness Assessment
Performance: Performed consecutively on the same day.
20 Elevated Push Ups
30 degree crunches (30 within 60 seconds)
5 mile road march in under 80 minutes w/rifle, 3 day pack, & basic load of ammo/food/water
Time Requirement: Within 120 Days

Skill or Task: Individual Movement
Performance: Demonstrate
High Crawl
Low Crawl
Monkey Crawl
Night Walk Technique
Standard: IAW MW LP
Time Requirement: Within 30 Days

Skill or Task: Team Security
Performance: Demonstrate ability to set up a 'team triangle'
Standard: IAW MW LP
Time Requirement: Within 30 Days

Skill or Task: Land Navigation
Performance: Demonstrate the ability to shoot a magnetic azimuth, back azimuth, convert mag to grid azimuth and grid to mag azimuth, plot 8 digit grid coord, and determine a correcct pace count
Standard: IAW MW LP
Time Requirement: Within 120 Days

Additional Information: While the above performance requirements illustrate the minimum acceptable performance by RC’s for membership in _______________, the following information provides specifics on what additional knowledge and ability each RC should master as soon as possible.

1. Marksmanship: Without the ability to deliver aimed, accurate, deliberate, deadly fire, the Minuteman’s effectiveness is diminished almost to the length of his reach. To ensure the Minuteman can confidently engage at his weapon’s maximum effective range when required, the following will be the standard for personal marksmanship.

a. Weapons Nomenclature: The candidate must demonstrate the knowledge he or she possesses of the main battle rifle carried prior to completing the AQT. Skills required:

i. Field Strip into major groups and describe the purpose of the group in the weapons’ function.
ii. Describe the cycle of operation for the rifle
iii. Describe common stoppages and malfunctions
iv. Describe required lubrication points & schedule as applicable to your rifle
v. Describe how “mechanical zero” is obtained on your rifle.

b. Rifleman Candidate: The candidate must be able to obtain the minimum qualifying score on a “Certification AQT” after shooting 20 rounds (120 pts).

c. Rifleman: The candidate must be able to shoot 4 MOA @ 100 yards with his or her primary rifle (iron sights or low powered “scout” or CQB type scope). This ability will be measured by the “Fred’s M14 Stocks” full AQT. The scoring window of “Marksman” must be achieved. Minimum Acceptable Score: 140

d. Senior Rifleman: The candidate must be able to shoot 4 MOA @ 100 yards with his or her primary rifle (iron sights or low powered “scout” or CQB type scope). This ability will be measured by the “Fred’s M14 Stocks” full AQT. The scoring window of “Expert” Must be achieved. Minimum Score: 200 (160 if course is conducted @ 100 yards with single 6” Fred’s silhouettes)

Marksmanship clinics will be conducted quarterly so that tactical training can take place.

2. Camouflage self & equipment IAW applicable terrain features (rural or urban): In accordance with (IAW) the MW LP, camouflage self and gear in any of the following environments as directed.

i. Rural:
1. Above ground
2. Below ground
ii. Urban:
1. Among buildings, streets, cities & suburbs
2. Among populace

3. Physical Fitness Assessment - Minimum Acceptable Fitness Level – must be performed consecutively on the same day started:

a. 20 elevated push ups
b. 30 degree crunches: 30 w/in 60 seconds
c. Road March – 5 miles in 80 minutes or less with patrol pack (3 day, assault, or butt pack with all accouterments) & LBE w/primary weapon and basic load of ammo/water.

Push Up & abdominal exercise technique will be demonstrated as necessary, usually before marksmanship clinics. Personal exercise by each person will be done on his or her own time. Road March practice may be conducted at any time during the training cycle with distances ranging from 2 to 10 statute miles.

Annual 10 mile road marches with combat packs, basic load of ammunition, and primary weapon will be conducted with a 3 hours (about18 minutes per mile) time limit over reasonably level ground regardless of weather conditions to demonstrate the physical abilities of the team, provide an opportunity to test out load balance, and build team spirit by shared performance of a rigorous training requirement. It is the personal responsibility of each member to keep himself within group fitness expectations.

4. Individual Movement: In addition to the minimum requirements, each member will be trained in and evaluated on performance and knowledge of the following:

a. Micro-terrain Appreciation & Employment

i. Micro-terrain definition: Terrain features that are comprised of natural and manmade features in the AO that provides cover and concealment to the individual, team, or squad of minutemen. Micro-terrain has a significant impact on the probability of survival of the individual or team by how the cover and concealment it offers is employed. Examples of micro-terrain features: grasslands & swamps, gullies and rocks, depressions, road shoulders, water ditches, subsurface drain, sidewalk curb, small bushes, etc.

b. Harnessing the Senses

i. Natural Night Vision

ii. Discovering signs of enemy presence: Wilted foliage, fresh dirt, linear shapes, and subtle glint.

iii. The importance of Hearing
1. What to listen for: Marching, digging, artillery set up, sloshing canteen water, bayonet scabbard noise, coughing, footsteps, rifle report differences (AK vs M16 vs SAW etc), gear noise, etc.
2. Sounds warning of danger: Grenade spoon “twang”, absence of any background noise, dogs barking, flight of wild birds, even an agitated insect (what would make an insect mad enough to bother you?)

iv. Smell and technique
1. What to smell: tobacco, smoke, urine, feces, chewing gum, toothpaste, hair tonic, insect spray, scented soap.

v. Touch: exposed skin works the best
1. What touch warns of: metallic prongs of a mine, wires, any indicator of another human being, differences in the medium being moved through (water, puff of air, etc), residual heat from a prone body or shell casings.

vi. Taste: An unexpected taste may be the only warning attack available in certain scenarios.

vii. Sense Enhancement at the Expense of Others: All electronic surveillance devices have an inherent flaw: it must process everything it detects. For example, heavy rain erases sound and virtually negates thermal imaging. NV can be easily defeated by illumination behind a planned penetration point. In fact, any light source depreciates the quality of NV.

c. Observation techniques: How to look for the enemy.

d. Undiscovered movement: Indiscernible movement toward an opponent.

e. Infiltration/Exfiltration: Getting in and out of enemy bases undiscovered

5. Basic Knife, Tomahawk & Bayonet Techniques

a. Sentry Removal

i. Aware of Attack
ii. Unaware of Attack

b. Silent Assault w/edged weapon of choice

i. 5 Angles of Attack
ii. Roof Blocks
iii. 5 Counters

c. Fire Discipline: Why, how, and when

d. Obstacle Breaching

e. Land Navigation

f. Planning

6. Team:

a. Perimeter defense
i. Fire Team
ii. Squad
iii. Platoon

b. Communications

c. First Aid (Self & Others)

d. Field fortifications
i. Rural
ii. Urban

7. Tactics:

a. Withdrawal Under Fire

b. Envelopment
i. Inside Out

c. Flexible Defense

d. Delaying Actions

e. Ambush

f. Raid

g. Reconnaissance
i. From within the objective

h. Deception of Electronic Imagery

i. Defeating NVG & Thermal Imagery

8. Leadership:

Leadership is critical to the success of any team in the field. Leaders must understand that each member of the team is vital and each sees things from a unique perspective that may hold the key to problems encountered. Once a team member has attained “basic” proficiency (Basic Training completed), the leader should solicit their opinions on exercise/training efficiency, field problems, and tactical workarounds for the “play book” without prejudice (accepting opinions without denigration). Additionally, at each level of expertise gained, all team members must complete the following:

a. Rifleman:

i. Plan & execute a fire team strength (4 to 6 men) reconnaissance patrol with little or no assistance while completing the training mission without unit compromise.

ii. Plan and conduct a one hour block of instruction on any one of the following subjects during a scheduled training session:

1. Night Vision Techniques
2. Marksmanship Fundamentals
3. Basic Patrolling
4. Combat First Aid
5. Field Fortifications
6. Camouflage, Cover & Concealment
7. Individual Movement Techniques
8. Map Reading & Terrain Association
9. The Lensatic Compass

b. Senior Rifleman:

i. Plan & execute a reinforced fire team strength (6 to 9 men) point ambush or security patrol with little or no assistance from higher command echelon completing the training mission by exfiltration of the objective area without discovery.

ii. Plan and conduct a two hour block of intermediate level instruction on any one of the following subjects during a scheduled training session (the subject chosen may not be the subject taught for MM1):

1. Night Vision Techniques
2. Marksmanship Fundamentals
3. Basic Patrolling
4. Combat First Aid
5. Field Fortifications
6. Camouflage, Cover & Concealment
7. Individual Movement Techniques
8. Map Reading & Terrain Association
9. The Lensatic Compass

c. Rifleman NCO:

i. Plan & execute a reinforced squad strength (13 to 19 men) raid mission including reconnaissance of the objective, infiltration of the squad, patrol base implementation and security, successful action at the objective, and exfiltration of the objective area without discovery or mission compromise.

ii. Plan and conduct a four hour block of advanced instruction on any one of the following subjects during a scheduled training session (the subject chosen may not be the subject taught for MM2 and may include a formal written, verbal or performance evaluation):

1. Night Vision Techniques
2. Marksmanship Fundamentals
3. Basic Patrolling
4. Combat First Aid
5. Field Fortifications
6. Camouflage, Cover & Concealment
7. Individual Movement Techniques
8. Map Reading & Terrain Association
9. The Lensatic Compass

NOTE: This is a basic Plan of Instruction and is only a foundation for group training and expertise!


Anonymous said...

Excellent plan, however there is one problem. 10 to 20 miles range with a FRS/GRMS is not going to happen in a real world environment, unless one radio is at the top of a mountain and the other is at the bottom of a valley. FRS/GRMS radios are really only good for 1 to 2 miles. MURS radios will get you about 5 miles. Ham radio 5 watt VHF/UHF HTs (Handy Talkies) can get about 10 miles, but any farther and you will need to use a repeater or a directional beam antenna mounted to an antenna mast or hung in a tree.

All radios are terrain sensitive, hilly terrain or urban environments will greatly limit the effective range of the radio.

Anonymous said...

Yes, I'd have to agree with you on the FRS/GMRS radios as compared to MURS and HAM. No comparison when it comes to capabilities.

However, the purpose for inclusion of the radios is for intra-group communication in a MW mode, versus the AW mode of establishing a far reaching, repeatable, complex radio communications network that is as easily DF'd as the intra-group comm system. (Oh, to have burst transmission capability!!)

Please keep in mind the POI template is to help structure a group training plan and is completely modifiable to individual group desires, needs or requirements, so if you're considering adopting a portion of it and modifying communications, by all means, do so!

Thanks for the comments.

Anonymous said...

Very good outline.

I could see it being a little different for specialized units, such as for urban partisan training, however.

For that, the major add-ons might be: intelligence collection, weapons disposal, 'hiding in plain sight', more emphasis on sprints with some forced marches, learning about the area's black market and underclass, etc.

Anonymous said...

Falcon Here
Thanks for the guidance. I know it is a good starting point and the way things are going, the sooner we prepare the better. After hearing about the assault on the first amendment by the liberal "fairness Doctrine," I've come to the sad conclusion that it's now only a matter of time before it all hits the fan.


Anonymous said...

Flat out best regional and direction-finding-resistant radio is HF with an NVIS antenna. 400 miles, omni directional. Army uses it in forward tactical scenarios for a works.